We show that Neandertals shared more genetic variants with present-day humans in Eurasia than with present-day humans in sub-Saharan Africa, suggesting that gene flow from Neandertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other. Hominins from Europe and Africa shed light on functional adaptations and other aspects of lifeways during the Middle Paleolithic. By the end forager automation of that time span, Neanderthals and modern humans clearly differed physically and perhaps behaviorally. Explanations of the anatomical differences have largely focused on adaptation to climate and habitual activity, but it is hard to rule out the alternative of genetic drift. Drift would have accelerated during periods of low population numbers, while selection operates best when populations are large and expanding.

The tribunal found itself entirely unable to convict individuals charged with performing harmful magic, or maleficio, as different worldviews clashed in the courtroom. Physicians, exorcists, and inquisitors all had different approaches to distinguishing natural phenomena from supernatural, and without a consensus guilty verdicts could not be obtained. The lingual cusp is primitively without shear facets, as expected, but the cheek side of the tooth is derived in having distinctive cusps along the margin. The tooth, although distressingly inadequate to define many features of the organism, demonstrates unexpected morphological diversity at a strategic stage of mammalian evolution and falsifies previous claims of the earliest occurrence of true marsupials. Our purpose is to show that his ideas illuminate the situation in Iberia but also that the Iberian case is a remarkable illustration of Zilsel’s thesis. Furthermore, we argue that Zilsel’s thesis is essentially a sociological explanation that cannot be applied to isolated cases; its use implies global events that involve extended societies over large periods of time.

Taken together the findings allow the proposal that naledi evolved in southern Africa without competition from Hss and that it was a later intrusion of Hss from the north that led to the demise of H. In this case the Florisbad fossil would constitute a representative of early Hss intruders (possibly Mbuti/San) coming from the north. The follow-up study from the same laboratory was limited to parts of the mtDNA control region.

By establishing those parameters, a pedigree and chronology for Eastern Beringian lithic assemblages can be described. Paleoindian habitation of the upper Snake River Plain of southern Idaho is predominantly represented by sites containing large, stemmed, Haskett-style spear points. Recent studies in southern Idaho have suggested that these stemmed-point users, while highly mobile, may have been primarily tethered to wetland and riverine environments.

Hss after the divergence between Mbuti/San and the remaining Eurasian populations. Archaeologists show little hesitation in developing sophisticated quantitative models to generate hypotheses concerning the Paleoindian era. As a consequence, however, Paleoindian colonization is often simplistically modeled as biological population fissioning or with unwarranted assumptions about social organization and demographic parameters. Correspondingly—and despite the centrality of kin concepts in the development of much anthropological theory—any notion of “Paleoindian kinship” with specific semantic content would be widely regarded as unknowable. Yet, Paleoindian peoples were undoubtedly aware of critical options for managing the sociogeographic boundary at which marriages could occur where small group sizes and extremely low population densities prevailed.