In fact, his theory was based on his observations of individuals in clinical settings; some of the individual components of the theory found little empirical support. One criticism relates to the order in which the needs are ranked. It is possible to imagine that individuals who go hungry and are in fear of their lives might retain strong bonds to others, suggesting a different order of needs.

We asked respondents whether they preferred going shopping at a mall or a shopping street and why. The aim was to find out, indirectly and without biasing the respondents, whether personal attention is the main motivation for choosing the shopping location . In order to contrast this hypothesis we used a binary logistic regression, applying wall method. They can open a product to have the customers try it and can be honest about their feelings toward different products. They receive on- and off-the-job training and are intimately familiar with the products, which enables them to come up with ideas that are taken seriously by upper management. In short, employees love what they do, work with nice people who treat each other well, and are respected by the company.

These pay systems are then contrasted with performance-based pay systems where pay is directly proportional to the employee’s performance level. Specific examples in education, government, healthcare, sales, and other industries are discussed. The authors’ overall conclusions are that although individual, competitive for businesses facing complex and turbulent business environments, which of the following is true? systems may be successful in some situations, cooperative and group-based ones are preferred. They provide the example of gainsharing and open-book management, which involves the organization sharing profit gains with employees, and incentivizes the employee to participate more in behaviors that increase profits.

But, for the most part, straight forward discussions with the staff specialist evaluating that person’s approach should help the staffer over a period of time, to learn what is expected in relationships with operating personnel. This loss of satisfaction not only concerns the individual involved but also is significant from the standpoint of the company that is trying to get maximum productivity from the operating people. People who do not have a feeling of comprehension of what they are doing are denied the opportunity to exercise that uniquely human ability—the ability to use informed and intelligent judgment on what they do. If the staff person leaves the operating people with a sense of confusion, they will also be left unhappy and less productive.

For example, praise could strengthen the employees’ efforts to reduce defects . The withholding of praise for defect levels deemed less than adequate or below established goals could cause employees to stop behavior that was contributing to defects or work harder to reduce defects . Next, employees and supervisors keep track of the employee’s performance record as compared to the preset behavioral criteria and goals. For example, the record could provide employees with continuous feedback concerning the extent to which they are on target in meeting their defect reduction goals. Include good attendance, promptness in arriving for work, and completing tasks on schedule.

According to a study conducted by Alec Roy and colleagues, norepinephrine is secreted when a person feels stress, arousal, or thrill; pathological gamblers use gambling to increase their levels of this neurotransmitter. Another researcher, neuroscientist Hans Breiter, has done extensive research on gambling and its effects on the brain. Breiter reports that “Monetary reward in a gambling-like experiment produces brain activation very similar to that observed in a cocaine addict receiving an infusion of cocaine” (para. 1). Deficiencies in serotonin might also contribute to compulsive behavior, including a gambling addiction. Because of its emphasis on shaping behavior, it is more appropriate to think of behavior modification as a technique for motivating employees rather than as a theory of work motivation.

Several researchers have compared the factors that draw consumers to shopping streets and malls. Reimers and Clulow believe that malls provide greater spatial convenience than shopping streets. Teller and Reutterer establish that the commercial mix, value for money, and entertainment element influence the appeal of a shopping street and a mall.