The methodology includes visual, intuitive tree models whose analysis is supported by a rigorous mathematical formalism. Both, the intuitive and the formal components of the approach can be used for quantitative analysis of attack-defense scenarios. In practice, we use intuitive questions to ask about aspects of scenarios we are interested in. Formally, a computational procedure, defined with the help of attribute domains and a bottom-up algorithm, is applied to derive the corresponding numerical values. This paper bridges the gap between the intuitive and the formal way of quantitatively assessing attack-defense scenarios.

Incorporating the general conditions in the existing backtracking algorithm, the estimated complexity of the cryptanalytic attack is decreased below the best published result but the RC4 still remains a quite secure cipher in practice. Fovino et al. adopt the term “extended fault tree” used in the analyses of cyber attacks, and introduce the possibilities of integrating cyber reviews attacks into fault trees. A very interesting concept expanding FTA potential is described by Yager . In his approach he generalizes standard fault trees using mainly the operators OR/AND, and introduces so called “Ordered Weighted Averaging” operators. Most of the questions usually asked for attack trees can be adapted so that they can be answered on ADTrees as well.

To address the software design and development, reliability assessment is considered as crucial and most important task. Several studies have been directed towards reliability assessment approaches for obtaining highly reliable software product. In conventional reliability theory, failure probability of any component is assumed as an exact value but in actuality it’s not possible to get failure probability precisely. In this study, we have proposed an approach to assess the reliability of a software system with vague failure rate of the components as the given information might be incomplete or uncertain. It is a bottom–top methodology which includes the combination of intuitionistic fuzzy set theory and ordered weighted averaging tree analysis. Using IFS, we are able to come over the vagueness in the failure rate data and by using OWA-tree, we incorporate the subjectivity in the opinion of software developers with respect to selection of module.

He doesn’t have much of a personality as he lives his life in such a way that he is mostly a passive observer of his surroundings. When the events of the game begin he is thrown into a situation where he will have to do something that is both necessary and completely out of his control. Bullhorn is a cloud computing company headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts. The company provides customer relationship management , applicant tracking system and operations software for the staffing industry.

An OWA node comprises n subsystems, in which there is some probabilistic uncertainty in the number of components that need be satisfied (Chang et al. 2008). However, the AND and OR nodes insufficiently represent the complex association between subsystems (Chang et al. 2008). To this end, Yager proposed the ordered weighted averaging tree, which contains the AND node, OR node, and OWA node.

Firstly, we propose a system-centric methodology to reinforce the cybersecurity of an existing UAS. This methodology provides the user with a workflow to analyze the UAS, identify the possible attack scenarios, and identify suitable countermeasures. Secondly, we propose an operation-centric methodology that considers the cybersecurity issues in the early phase of the UAS development . This methodology is an extended version of the Specific Operation Risk assessment methodology . The SORA is a wide-known methodology to assess the risks of UAS operations under the “Specific” category. However, the current stage of the SORA methodology focuses only on safety but ignore cybersecurity.