The University was originally a scholastic Guild, whether of Masters or Students. Such Guilds sprang into existence, like other Guilds, without any express authorisation of King, Pope, Prince, or Prelate. They were spontaneous products of the instinct of association that swept over the towns of Europe in the course of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. This led to uneasy tensions with secular authorities—the demarcation between town and gown. Masters and students would sometimes “strike” by leaving a city and not returning for years. This happened at the University of Paris strike of 1229 after a riot left a number of students dead.

Though illuminated books were highly prized, they were also expensive and labor-intensive to create. By the end of the Middle Ages, the papal library in Avignon, France, held only a few thousand manuscripts compared to the nearly half-million texts found at the Library of Alexandria in ancient times . Bookmaking in the Western world became somewhat less expensive when paper emerged as the primary writing surface. Making paper from rags and other fibers, a technique that originated in 2nd-century China, reached the Islamic world in the 8th century and led to a flowering of book culture there. By the 12th century, Marrakesh, in modern-day Morocco, was said to have had a street lined with a hundred booksellers. But it wasn’t until the 14th century that paper manufacturing began in earnest in Europe.

The small and comparatively primitive ships of the time were not well suited to long voyages in heavy ocean seas, and the navigation techniques were utterly inadequate to the challenge of long voyages far from land. Despite these limitations, by the end of the Middle Ages some Europeans had neared, or even landed on, the North American cost. The Vikings had settled Iceland, areas of Greenland (warmer, less ice-bound in those days) and “Vinland”, which may have been Newfoundland or Labrador. Later, Breton fishermen took to sailing regularly to the cod fishing grounds off Newfoundland and New England, to satisfy the huge demand for fish in Catholic Europe .

Also, in Paris the main subject matter was theology, so control of the qualifications awarded was in the hands of an external authority – the chancellor of the diocese. In Bologna, where students chose more secular studies, the main subject was law. The university is generally regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian setting.

Torture was administered on a routine basis for obtaining information – the wrack was a common procedure. Throughout the Middle Ages, however, much justice could be horrifyingly rough and ready by modern standards. With the body armor of the contestants covering the face, knights’ identity had to be proclaimed by unique patterns approximately how many female offspring are produced by 3-4 year old female ground squirrels? of symbols on their shields and banners. This practice gave rise to heraldry, by which family descent was represented symbolically by these patterns. This in term led to aristocratic families being demarcated from the rest of the population by heraldic coats of arms though which their families could be traced for generations.

These days, the tasks of editing, designing, printing, promoting, and distributing a book generally fall to the book’s publisher. Although authors are usually the ones with their names prominently displayed on the spine, a published book is actually the product of many different kinds of labor by many different people. The world requires new information’s to be stored and explained faster and smarter. So this web site will have the user’s questions explained by professional people either students or anyone have a good idea about those questions. Kiev soon lost its primacy, but then, in the 13th century, the Mongols occupied the Russian principalities. They went on to launch extraordinarily destructive raids into eastern Europe, making short work of all European armies sent against them.

Therefore, it is important that the young birds learn to fly and leave the nest as quickly as possible. Based on the context, what does the metaphor “Bird nests are a neon sign for predators” mean? A word that relates to Neoclassical emphasis rather than Romantic emphasis is _____…. A word that relates to Neoclassical emphasis rather than Romantic emphasis is _____.

Until towards the end of the Middle Ages, the only people who had what we would call an “education” were those destined for a career in the church. The majority of the population were completely illiterate. Even aristocrats were mostly unable to read and write until the later Middle Ages. Literacy was not regarded as a particularly valuable accomplishment for a gentleman, as he could delegate tasks involving reading and writing to clerks.