Popular ways to be active include walking, cycling, wheeling, sports, active recreation and play, and can be done at any level of skill and for enjoyment by everybody. Therapeutic reasons – to gauge the impact of a given intervention; physical activity counselling; to design an exercise prescription. Considered the cornerstone of endurance training, characterized by moderate energy expenditure over a prolonged period of time.

And muscle strength of children with SB seems to be well understood in the literature. However, further studies exploring other physical fitness components and integrating adults/elderly with SB are needed to establish reference values and comparisons with healthy peers. This knowledge will allow health professionals to conduct their interventions based on objective data. The accelerated decline of aerobic capacity with age has important implications regarding functional independence and quality of life .

In contrast, exercise-induced adaptations to cardiomyocyte mitochondria dampen oxidative damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion, resulting in reduced cardiac injury and decreasing the risk of ischemia-related cardiac dysfunction or death (149–151). Mitochondrial biogenesis is augmented in cardiomyocytes in response to exercise . These exercise-induced enhancements of mitochondrial function are important in preventing cardiovascular dysfunctions often caused by obesity. Sustained hypertension increases left ventricular afterload, forcing the left ventricle to work harder . This leads to pathologic hypertrophy of the ventricular walls and ventricular chamber dilation, eventually culminating in decreased myocardial function and the onset of heart failure .

However, the question remains as to how much exercise is optimal for cardiovascular health benefit. Studies in endurance runners show that the frequency of adverse cardiovascular events in marathoners is equivalent to that in a population with established CHD, suggesting that too much exercise may be detrimental . A recent investigation also showed that individuals who maintain very high levels of physical activity (~3 times recommended levels) have higher odds of developing CAC, particularly in white males .

These findings suggest that even small improvements in fitness can translate into significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality and CVD. Efforts should be made to target the least fit because slight increases in activity can mean significant gains in health status. A theoretical relationship between physical activity and the risk for mortality and chronic disease is shown inFigure 1. It is estimated that approximately 35% of coronary heart disease mortality is due to physical inactivity. The significance of this relationship lies in the fact that coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States with over 700,000 deaths annually.

A recent study provided personalized aerobic exercise rehabilitation programs for patients who had an acute myocardial infarction for 1 year after a coronary intervention surgery . This improvement in cardiovascular health in patients with atherosclerosis or post-MI is likely the result of increased myocardial perfusion in response to exercise, however more research is required to fully understand these mechanisms . The resistance arterial vascular network also the famous “i’ve fallen and i can’t get up” commercial was for what product? undergoes functional and structural adaptation to exercise . Repeated exercise leads to an adaptive response in skeletal muscle arterioles that includes increased vascular density coupled with greater vasodilatory capacity, such that enhanced perfusion can occur after conditioning (113–116). This may be partly due to adaptation of the endothelium to the complex interplay of recurrent variations in hemodynamic stresses and vasodilatory stimuli of exercise.

To support a ‘whole of system’ response, WHO is collaborating across multiple sectors to strengthen coordination, advocacy and alignment of policy and actions. WHO is also working with many other UN agencies in the shared agenda to promote Sport for Development and Peace. To assess physical activity among schoolchildren WHO has collaborated on a questionnaire module which has been integrated into the Global school-based student health survey . The GSHS is a WHO/US CDC surveillance project designed to help countries measure and assess the behavioural risk factors and protective factors in 10 key areas among young people aged 13 to 17 years. Replacing sedentary time with physical activity of any intensity provides health benefits. Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death globally, taking an estimated 17.9 million lives each year.

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide . Almost half of all adults in the United States have at least one key risk factor for development of CVD (i.e., high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoking) . CVD encompasses a wide range of conditions that affect the heart and vasculature including arrhythmias, dilated, hypertrophic, or idiopathic cardiomyopathies, heart failure and atherosclerosis . These conditions can lead to potentially fatal cardiac events such as stroke, myocardial infarction , or cardiac arrest . Thus, determining various therapeutic tools to prevent or reduce the incidence of CVD is vital.

They may also have a lower risk of dying of all causes, such as heart disease and certain cancers. Depending on the intensity of exercise, the body preferentially utilizes certain fuel forms to meet energy demands. The two main fuel sources for aerobic exercise in the body include fat and glycogen.